It is apparent that Jesus' audience was past the point of worshipping golden calves, but in the Sermon on the Mount he did address other forms of idolatry (placing more importance on material things than on the Principle of being): financial assets, obsessing about food and/or clothing.
How silly to think that your financial assets can compensate for your spiritual barrenness, or that the food you eat is more important than the thoughts and feelings you harbor, or that the clothes you wear can hide the ugliness of your soul! The practicality of Jesus' teaching is beyond compare. It is unfortunate that the Christian world in general is in denial of this teaching, serving mammon first, and whatever is left, leaving to God.
"Seek ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things will be added unto you." This is not ancient religion or philosophy. It is absolute Science. It works invariably, and there is no faking it!